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Perspective of Indigenious Jinghpaw(Kachin) and Their Life In the Context of Globalization

2011/6/28 0:00:00点击数(0)已有0人评论

Perspective of  Indigenious Jinghpaw(Kachin) and Their Life In the Context of Globalization


Every Nation, People Groups and Person have their own concepts, historical background and homeland. People or a person can not live alone in the human society. Likewise, Nations and People Groups are also can not live only as a one Nation and People Groups in their Homeland in the world. Because of the wind the deceases can transmitte and spread, and it affects over all of the world. (e.g.Japan Nuclear Problem, Bird Flue,and HIV/AIDS, etc.....). First World War, Second World War,and World Bank Economic Crisis were strongly affected over all of the Nations. There is always globalization affect in our society and Nations.

 Every person or nations write their own history (good and bad reputation) in every day. Because of human beings an enveronment and weather are also changed in the world. The changes of enveronment and weather, people and nations have to suffer natural disasters. Nowadays, the world needs love, peace and tranquality. Human life is very short. In the short time of human life, every person have a strong desire to live peacefully on the earth. The Ethnic Kachin People Group is also one of them to live in their homeland peacefully.

 I. Jinghpaw and Their Land

   1.1. The Term and Meaning of Jinghpaw and Kachin

 The word ''Jinghpaw'' means ''Man or Human''. They decended  from Heaven and lived on the earth, called Majoi Shingra Bum (Himalian Mountain) as a human form. Later on they called themselves  as ''Jinghpaw''(human). The name, Singhpo is known as in India, Jinghpo is in China and Kachin is in Myanmar. Why I could say that Jinghpo people are decended from heaven is that:" The Legend and Spirit Diviners tell that the ancestors of Jinghpo decended from heaven and settled down in Majoi Shingra Bum (Tibet Plateu) and gradualy migrated and settled in Mogolia, Hkranghku Majoi(Northern part of myanmar),China and India etc...  The forefather of Jinghpo "JA WA RUM JA was married the daughter of Lamu Madai Nat(Daughter of Heaven) when he arrived in Hkarang Hku Majoi, Northern Part of Myanmar. There he was entertained with Manau Dance by the Lamu Madai People (heavenly people/angels). In the story of Hkrai Gam and Hkrai Naw (which is one of the main stories of Jinghpo people), Hkrai Gam also was married with daughter of Heavenly God, Miss. Nang Ma Si Ta.'' There are so many facts to mention that Jinghpo people have a good relationship with heavenly people/angels. When Jinghpo people celebrate manau festival, they generally constructed Manau Pillar and Traditional House to recall the past. There is a basket made of bamboo called ''Jan Jaw Khinram'' which usually means to keep meat in respect of Diety of Heavenly God (Ninggawn Chyanun/Mahtum Mahta). There is a Ladder made of bamboo named ''Slip Lakang''. There is another Ladder near the main Ladder called ''Jan Lakang''(Sun Ladder)." From this Ladder Heavenly God (Ninggawn Chyanun/ Mahtum Mahta) and their Grand Parents climbed down to bless their children, Jinghpo people.

 The term of "Kachin" was given by an American Missionaries. Ga Hkyeng is one the families name, who lived in Mogong Township, Jinghpawland, Myanmar. In 1837, when American Missionary Dr. Kincaid met with a man in Mogong and asked "who are you?" The man answerd him that I am Ga Hkyeng(the man answered acoording to Kachin culture concept). The American Missionary Dr. Kincaid did not know about the culture of Jinghpo people at that time. And they did not catch clear cut of pronounciation of Ga Hkyeng, and did not know their literature at all. The American Missionary Dr. Kincaid, noted down in his note book as "Kakhen instead of Ga Hkyeng." Later the word Kakhen became Kachin. Whatever it may be, present Jinghpaw people are called themselves as " Kachin" and use in the historical books, all over the world. There is no any other people groups the name "Jinghpo" except Kachin people in the world.

 Kachin people are free people and the children of heavenly beings, they had never lived or stayed under the control of any people groups or nations untill the first world war. They live as a democtratic way of living style in their Land for centuries untill today. They are simple, honest, royal, pious, generous warriors. Kachin people are bounding by culture and kinship relationship system. That is why there is no stranger in Kachin People. And Kachin People are belongs to Tibeto-Burman Language group.

 1.2. The Land (Territory)

 The Land of Jinghpo people is:  In the east Yunan,China, in the west Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India, Northern Part of Myanmar and Sub-State Kachin, Shan State in the south east. All the areas are connected crossing border, Ledo Road or Stillwell Road. At the time of British Colony, before getting Independence of Myanmar, India, China, and Jinghpawland (Territory) had been divided and part of into three countries. But Kachin people are in one spirit and one culture, living in the world as a Manau People. Only Kachin People have such a fantastic Manau Cultural Dance Festival where thousands andd thousands people can partake, enjoying various forms of dancing in the world.

 That is why, Kachin people portray the world with their beautiful Cultural Manau Dance, Traditional Custume and Culture beautifully. Yes, of course, no one can deny it those who know about the Cultural Manau Dance Festival of Jinghpo People in Yunan Province, Southwest China, Myanmar, India, Thailand and America,etc...

 Kachin People who live in India, China,Thailand, America and other foreign countries can live and stay peacefully except in Myanmar. I do not know why? there must have been something wrong in Myanmar, indeed!!! Please remember in your pray for the people who live in Myanmar and Government.

 II. Political Background

  2.1. Their Concept

 Jinghpaw People are the children of Heavenly God and free-man. So they live in their homeland in democratic way. They administer and govern their homeland and people according to their Custumery Law, Tradition and Cultural Status in Justice by Du Wa (Cheifs). Majority of Kachin People are Chritians. One important thing is that among the Kachin people there is no stranger, all are relatives and kins in one! They do not harm other people unless other people start challenge and harm them. Kachin people can live as a good citizen in China, India, Myanmar, Thailand and other countries of  the world. They have a strong desire for Peace and Tranquality while living in this world in a short time of human life. That is why those who breake-out Peace and Tranquality, Jinghpaw people always defend, protect and try to maintain patiently. So, three hundred forefather Kachin soldiers joined the British Army and went to Mesopotemia  to defeat enemy of Peace and Tranquality of the world under leadership of British Army.

 When British Government invaded Jinghpawland, Myanmar, Jinghpaw Cheifs and their fellows fought vigorously for the sake of protecting their homeland, peace and tranquality in the Jinghpawland. Again, in the Second World War, thousands of Kachin Young Man came to join in American Ranger Army(101) and British Colony Government Army (Levi Army) till the end of Second World War successfully for the sake of  peace of the world. Mainly defeated the Japanese Enemy from Burma, India and China cross-border areas by Kachin Ranger 101 army and American alliance. In March 25-27, 1945, Kachin Ranger Army and American Ranger 101 Army celebrated Victorious Manau Dance(Padang Manau) in Sinlum, Bhamaw District,Kachin State. We did not know where Awng San and his colleages were. The history and their spirit are talking about the truth even though their lives has gone away from their Jinghpawland. No one can erase/dismiss it.

 After second world war, General Aung San and his political party tried to obtain Burma independence from British Colony Government and went to England but they had to return back unsuccessfully. Because British Government asked that General Aung San and his party should get the agreement of Independence the hill tribes people groups such as Kachin, Shan and Chin together. So, Aung San went up to Kachin Land and organized Kachin political leaders to obtain independence together with their Burman people from British Colony Government. Kachin Leader, Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng and his fellows organized Shan and Chin Leaders and they have a common spirit to get Independence together with Burman People. So, they have an agreement that to build Democratic Union of Burma and signed Panlung Agreement in febuary 12,1947. Because of this Panlung Agreement, British Colony Government has given Burma Independence on 4 January,1948. That is why the Panlung Agreement is very very important and main point of the way to solve the conflict and political problem of Myanmar.

 After getting independence of Burma from British Colony Government, the strongest and active soldiers groups, army camp were Kayin, Kachin and Chin Army in the Government of Myanmar. During the U Nu Government civil war broke-out,led by Tahkin Tan Htun, Tahkin Soe and his Communist Party (Burman People) first and later the Ethnic Karen People Arm Group started revolution. U Nu''s Rangon government and Burmese Army nearly about to finish up and lose, only Yangon Army headquarters were left by defeating and invading of Ethnic Karen Revolution Army. From this critical condition of U Nu''s Yangon Government and Army, Kachin and Aung San Turia Bo Taik Chyun,Chin Army saved them by sacrificing of their blood and lives for the sake of U Nu''s Yangon Government under leadership of Kachin political Leader, Sama Duwa Sinwa Nawng as a Defence Minister. Because of this, Myanmar Government and Army have merely survived and remained as the Union of Myanmar in the world. Not only that Kachin soldiers defeated Kunmington and Chaingkai Sheik Chinese enemy from Burma and cross-border areas of Myanmar and China too. Kachin and Chin Ethnic people saved the Union of Burma along the political background of Myanmar.

 Why Kachin people walked on that road with Burman people and government of Myanmar is that Kachin people want to build Federal Union of Myanmar Country to have Peace and Tranquality and developing country in the world. Those who are sensible will remember and know and those who are real human, he or she will never forget their benefectors.

 But U Nu, Ne Win, their fellows and their regame government party,from trem to term did not keep their promise, follow and ignored the Panlung Agreement and they walked through on the platform of Burmanization Policy till today. Because of this, the conflict and problem between Myanmar Government and Ethnic Indigenious People Arm Groups are not able to solve and find out the window to go out. As long as Myanmar Government does not reconsider of Panlung Agreement or soothe political problem based on the Panlung Agreement, the conflict between Myanmar Government and Ethnic Arm Groups will never end or sovle political problem in Myanmar and cross-border areas.

 Actually, Kachin People and Burmese People are not enemies to each other throughout Myanmar History. Now also we Kachin People believe and trust on Burmese and Burmese Government as a big brother and also we Kachin People trust on the People''s Republic of China as a Parent. That is why we Kachin People do hope and believe that Our Big Brother Myanmar Government and Our Parent, People''s Republic of China will find better way and suitable way, and solve the conflict and problem among ethnic groups in shortly and build a peaceful and developing country in southeast Asia in the near future.

 III.  Rights

 3.1. Ehtnic Rights in India

 In India, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh State, bordering with present-day Kachin State, Myanmar, the population of Jinghpaw is around fifty Thousand (50,000) and mainly live in arunachal pradesh state. Even though much less in trems of population, Indian Government respect their colourful Cultural heritage, Custumery Law and their homeland and properties fully. Government and Company would not do whatever they wanted to do as their will by using government authorities and money power in the place of ethnic minority people. They always consult with local native people and Chiefs. They respect and love even minority people and native people. Native minority people have the rights to speak out,to write,to condem and judge government and company or any other business groups those who are not in the right platform to perform in their homeland.  India is one of the biggest Federal Democracy country in the world too. Majority of Jinghpo people are Buddist religion in Assam and Runachal Pradesh, India.

 Even Government office can not settle down if native people and chiefs(Du Wa) do not allow or do not agree. Government and Company can not do any business without getting agreement of native people and Chiefs(Du Wa) in the people of Jinghpo Land. Non native people can not cut the tree, can not fishing in the stream and river freely as their will. Native Minority Jinghpo people only allow to buy them with the money from native Jinghpo people. Every Jinghpo people family have workers/labourers at least five persons for their home business.

 The main business is Green Tea Plantation, Paddy Planatation, Farms and Rubber Plantation. Nowadays, so many young educated persons join in government services (e.g. School Teachers, Clark, Police, Army, government and private Hospital etc...). Ethnic Minority Jinghpo People have seat and right to be as a Cheif Minister and Ministers in the State level. At present, there are two Jinghpo Ministers, four MP(Members of Parliament), around twenty officers in high position in army, intelligent, and police force,etc....

 In the State, Jinghpo Literature is recornized as a Third Language by the Centre Government of Education Department. From Pre-School to Middle School of Government is free payment education system. Private school are allowed to run and step up to better education system from Pre-school to College, University. People can learn and study whatever subjects they like in any Colleges and Universities if he or she is able to afford. Government also surport and offer full scholarship to the student those who are qualify. Government concern very much in the education of ethnic minority people groups.

 Every year Jinghpo people celebrate Cultural Manau Dance Festival, sponsored and funded by the State Government, Local Government and Torism Department of Indian Government. And there is one good thing: not only State Government and but also Government of New Dehli recorgnizes and respects the Cultural Manau Dance(Shapawng Yawng Manau Poi) Festival and send their warm wishes on regarding Cultural Manau Dance Festival of Jinghpo Ehnic People in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam with the Letter-head of Government from President of Delhi, President of Congress Party(Sonia Ghandi), Chief Minister and Governor of State in every year.

 The roads  is very good in everywhere even in the country-side. Electricity/Light is also available 24 hours in every corner of the country even in the country-side. Transportation and communication are also very good. Health care program is also very good. All native people are used only rice-cookers instead of firewood for fuel. It saves the forest and controls air pollution in their place. Government always has concern for its own citizens. So, people live in their homeland happily and peacefully.

 3.2. Ehtnic Rights in China 

 People''s Republic of China Government has deep conern for the ehtnic minority rights in China. Chinese Government respects and protects the ethnic minority people groups and their culture and history. The Government fully sponsors the budget of expanditure to conduct Cultural Manau Dance Festival in every year and for Jinghpo Cultural Dance Group. The Government has deep concern also in education and economics program in China. The Government governs/rules as a Tai-Jinghpo Authonomous regin (De Hung Tai Zu - Jinghpo Zu Zi Chyu Chyo)in the Yunan Province. Jinghpo People are accepted Chritianity and Animism in China.

 Government have special program and policy for the Ehtnic minority people in China. Ehtnic Minority People can learn and study whatever subjects they like in any College and University if the student have qualification and if he or she can afford the expenses. The Government also has full scholarship to those who are qualified in their studies. Population of Jinghpo in China is around one lak and thirthy five thousand(135,000) and Lisu is around 5 laks(500,000). In the sensus of Yunan Governmnent,in 1953 Jingpho Zu population is one lak(100,000). In 2011 Jinghpo Zu population is one laks and thirthy five thousand (135,000). Within 60 years Jinghpo Zu population increase around forthy Thousand (40,000). We Kachin People are very thankful to People''s Republic of China Government that as a Jinghpo Zu able to suvive till this decade without disapear of China in the world.

 The Government allows the people and has the for them policy to join in any government services if he or she is qualified. The Government granst and lends money from any bank of China to those who want to do business if he or she can prove his or her partcular business or work exactly. The Government gives favour to their public to do business and to develope. But birth control is not suitable for ethnic minority people groups in china.

 Government gives sponsorship to local people in the country-side to build houses and toilets. The Government arranges and offers farm land to their public those who do not have farm Land. The Government also offers money to ethnic minority people over sixty years of age who do not abuse drugs. They are trying drug-free places in the ehtnic minority people areas and all the country. Electricity/light is also available 24 hours in the whole country and using system is also very good everywhere. Communication and transportation are very good and there are easy systems in the whole country. There are so many good things of People''s Repblic of China Government on the ehtnic minority people groups in country level. We do hope to bring along with us,the people of southwest China ethnic minirity people groups and Myanmar.

    3.3. Ethnic Rights In Myanmar

 Population of Kachin People in Myanmar is over One Million. The Government of Myanmar is different from those of India, China and Thailand. There is no elcetric light available almost all over the country, even in Yangon, since the Independence from British Colony Government. Transportation and communication is very bad. Education is also very bad. The Ethnic Minority People can not study and learn whatever subjects they like. The ehtnic minority people groups do not have anything good to mention about the govenment. There is nothing good-smelling at all.

 The Government and company should have consideration regarding the Land, Paddy field and farm of native and minority people groups in the Kachin State(e.g.Yuzana Company in Danai Township Areas,other Companies in Puotao, etc..) The location of Mali and Nmai River confluence is invaluable and a historical site for Kachin People. Not only that the confluence of Mali and Nmai river is a dignity and tourist attraction of Myanmar too.

 If the place of confluence, Mali and Nmai River will breaks down and disapear from the place of Kachin Land it seems to be break down and destroy Kachin Culture, History and Kachin Land. It touches and hurts the hearts of all Kachin People and the people of Myanmar too. Please deeply consider regarding "Elcetric Hydro-Power,Dam Project in the confluence of Mali and NMai River, Kachin State, Myanmar." Govenrment and Company can do Hydro Power Electric City Project in other places and there are so many good places to do Hydro Power Project in Mynamar. This is we, Kachin people and public of Myanmar humble request to all respective leaders of all the countries of the world. That is the voice of Kachin people and  Public of  Myanmar.


 Nacotic, Drug and human traficking are one of the main critical problems in the cross-border areas of southwest China and Southeast Asia. Because of the Constitution and Law of India, China,Thailand and Myanmar are different, even though Myanmar Government opens in the cross-border areas as a Free Trade Zone, the ethnic people and native people groups will not get better opportunity and benefits. Cultivation (farm and paddy field) is the main business of Ethnic People groups in Myanmar. Every human beings want rights and peace. Without solving the main conflict of ethnic people groups in Myanmar, cross-border free trade zone project will not be successful.

 Today, the Kachin Land has been exploited by Logging, Jade and Gold Mining. The Mountains of Phakant(Kachin Duwa, Ginsi Cheif areas) have been disapeared day by day and green rain forests have been destroyed by logging enterprice. The rivers are being polutted by gold mining. The natural resources of Kachin Land have been exploted day by day but the Ethnic Native People groups are left behind in development. All these facts will impact on the Global Warming and Global Economic Crises in Southeast Asia.

 Those who have eyes will see what is right and wrong and what is happening in front of his or her and their neibours. Those who have ears will hear the voice of shouting, crying, loughing and the voices of requesting who are in need. And those who have heart will have mercy and love.


                        Paper Submitted By:

 Hpauje Kam Li

 May 7,2011









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